Home » PAGE 5.2 - International News » [+ENG] Jangan Lawan Teror dengan Teror

[+ENG] Jangan Lawan Teror dengan Teror

TAJUK REPUBLIKA — Tiga belas tahun lalu, tepatnya 11 September 2001, warga dunia dibuat tarkaget-kaget. Serangan terhadap menara kembar World Trade Center (WTC) di New York City, Amerika Serikat, yang menewaskan hampir 3.000 prang itu jelas menimbulkan duka mendalam.

Dua pesawat sengaja diarahkan menabrakkan diri ke gedung ikon Kota New York tersebut. Satu pesawat lain disetir untuk dijatuhkan ke Pentagon dan satu pesawat lagi jatuh di Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Presiden Amerika Serikat George W Bush saat itu sedang berkunjung ke sebuah sekolah dasar. Rona mukanya tampak berubah geram ketika anak buahnya melaporkan kejadian pengeboman tersebut. Bush pun menabuh genderang perang melawan teror.

Dengan menggunakan slogan “War on Global Terrorism”, Bush memulai perangnya dengan menginvasi Afghanistan pada 2002. Afghanistan menjadi tertuduh karena di negeri itulah Usamah bin Ladin, pemimpin Alqaidah, bersembunyi sekaligus diklaim mengendalikan serangan teror ke AS.

Jargon lain yang diusung Bush, “You are either with us or against us”—jika tidak memihak AS, berarti Anda memilih memusuhi AS—juga digunakan untuk menyerang Irak pada 2003. Dengan dalih Presiden Irak Saddam Husein menyembunyikan senjata pemusnah massal, AS berhasil menggalang kekuatan koalisi untuk menjatuhkan Saddam dari tampuk kekuasaan.

Dari sinilah kemudian menyebar gerakan global untuk melenyapkan “terorisme”. Istilah yang kemudian terkesan hanya disematkan pada kelompok-kelompok gerakan Islam. Teror berbalas teror pun dimulai.

Gerakan global melawan terorisme ini bukannya padam, dalam artian pelaku tenor menjadi berkurang atau bahkan hilang. Yang terjadi malah sebaliknya, memunculkan kebencian di dunia Islam terhadap segala yang berbau Barat, dalam hal ini dimaknai sebagai Amerika.

Karena itu, tak heran kelompok Alqaidah yang semula hanya berkembang di Afghanistan, bukannya hangus, justru makin menyebar. Jaringan Alqaidah meluas dan mendapatkan dukungan dari sekelompok entitas tertentu, seperti di Suriah, Irak, Libya, Nigeria, Sudan, dan Pakistan.

Jaringan Alqaidah bahkan kemudian berevolusi menjadi ketompok-kelompok sel baru, seperti yang terjadi di Suriah dan Irak dengan berdirinya Negara Islam Irak dan Suriah (ISIS). Kelompok yang merupakan transformasi dari Alqaidah itu kini mendaulat diri menjadi Negara Islam atau Islamic State (IS).

Hampir serupa dengan apa yang dilakukan Bush, Presiden Barack Obama pada Rabu (10/9) malam merestui dimulainya serangan udara terhadap basis-basis kekuatan ISIS di wilayah Suriah. AS pun berhasil meyakinkan Inggris, Prancis, dan Jarman untuk membantu mengusir kekuatan ISIS dari wilayah Irak meski ketiga negara ini berdatih bantuan militer mereka dimaksudkan sebagai aksi kemanusiaan atas terusirnya ribuan warga minoritas Yazidi yang diberitakan siap dibantai pasukan ISIS.

“Saya tak akan ragu bertindak terhadap ISIS di Suriah dan Irak,” kata Obama pada malam peringatan 13 tahun serangan 11 September. Menurut Obama, inilah tugas utamanya sebagai presiden. Jika ada kelompok mengancam AS, tak ada tempat aman bagi mereka.

Situasi yang dialami Obama ini bisa menjadi dejavu kepemimpinan Bush dalam aksi melawan tenor. Jika Obama tidak hati-hati, aksi teror yang dilawan dengan tenor memungkinkan menumbuhkan simpati bagi sebagian umat Islam. Dan, itulah yang terjadi ketika Bush menabuh teror membalas aksi teror militan Alqaidah. Bukan hanya militan yang tewas, puluhan, bahkan ribuan warga sipil di Afghanistan maupun Irak, turut menjadi korban.

Belajar dari sejarah, pendekatan kekuatan fisik saja tak cukup untuk metunakkan petaku teror. Teror tak bisa dilawan dengan teror meski bentuknya dilembagakan menjadi sebuah negara.

Pendekatan melalui persuasi dan dialog, seperti akulturasi budaya, empati, bantuan sosial, peningkatan kesejahteraan, memberikan pemahaman keagamaan yang benar, bisa jadi lebih mengena dibandingkan pengerahan kekuatan mesin-mesin perang. Obama sebagai peraih Nobel Perdamaian mesti banyak belajar dari pendahulunya saat ini.

Motif ekonomi dalam perang global melawan terorisme jangan sampai membungkus nurani sebagai manusia. Enyahkan jauh jauh cara-cara kekerasan dalam melawan kekerasan karena itu akan berbuntut pada kekerasan yang lain.

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Versi Inggris :

Terror Should Not Be Fought With Terror

Thirteen years ago on 11 September 2001the world was in complete shock. The attacks on the twin towers of the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York, United States (US) which killed nearly 3000 people obviously raised a profound grief.

Two planes were intentionally aimed to crash into the icon buildings of New York City. Another aircraft plane was steered to crash into Pentagon while another one crashed in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.

The US President George Bush was at an elementary school at the time. He seemed very disturbed when he was told about the bombings. Bush then beat the drum of war on terror.

Using the slogan “War on Global Terrorism”, Bush started his war by invading Afghanistan in 2002. The country became the accused because the Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden was hiding there. Bin Laden was claimed to have controlled the terror attacks on the US.

Bush also used his other slogan “You are either with us or against us” to invade Iraq in 2003. On the ground that the Iraqi President Saddam Husein was hiding the weapons of mass destructions, the US managed to mobilize the coalition forces to topple Husein from power.

Since then, the global war to eradicate “terrorism” spread. However, such term seemed to only pin on the Islamic groups. The avenging of terror with terror began.

The global war against terrorism does not seem to subside in terms of number of terrorists. What happens is the opposite. It leads to resentment in the Muslim world against the West, the US in this case.

Therefore, no wonder, the Al Qaeda which only operated in Afghanistan at first, did not die but it even spread out. It even got the support from certain groups such as in Syria, Iraq, Libya, Nigeria, Sudan, and Pakistan

The Al Qaeda network then evolved into new cell groups such as what happens in Syria and Iraq with the establishment of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). The ISIS then declared itself as the Islamic State (IS).

Almost similar to what Bush did, President Barack Obama on Wednesday night (10/9) gave his approval to start the air attacks against bases of ISIS in Syria. The US also convinced the UK, France and Germany to help expel ISIS from Iraq although the three countries argued that the military assistance was intended as a humanitarian aid for the expulsion of the Yazidi minorities reportedly about to be slaughtered by the ISIS.

“I will not hesitate to act against ISIS in Syria and Iraq, “said Obama on the night of the 13 year-commemoration of 9-11 attack. According to Obama, it was his main duty as the president. If there was a group posing a threat to the US, there would be no safe place for that group.

What Obama experiences could be a dejavu of Bush’s leadership on his war on terror. If Obama is not careful, the act to avenge terror with terror may foster sympathy of some Muslims. That was what happened when Bush avenged terror with terror against the militant Al Qaeda.  Militants were not the only ones getting killed, dozens even hundreds of civilians in Afghanistan and Iraq also become the victims.

Learning from history, physical approach is not enough to soften terror. Terror cannot be fought with terror although the form of the efforts is institutionalized as a state.
The approach through persuasion and dialogue such as the acculturation of culture, empathy, social aids, improved welfare, giving the right religious understanding, might be better than the mobilization of war. Obama, as the Nobel Peace Prize winner should learn a lot from his predecessors.   

Economic motives in the global war against terrorism should not shut our conscience as human. Get rid of ways of violence against violence because they will lead to other violence.

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